Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant tissue damage, medically called lesions. The term “cryotherapy” comes from the Greek cryo (κρύο) meaning cold, and therapy (θεραπεία) meaning cure.
The most prominent use of the term refers to the surgical treatment, specifically known as cryosurgery or cryoablation. Cryosurgery is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue and is used most commonly to treat skin conditions.
Cryotherapy is widely used to relieve muscle pain, sprains and swelling either via soft tissue damage or postoperative swelling. It can be a range of treatments from the very low technology application of ice packs or immersion in ice baths (generally known as cold therapy) to the use of cold chambers (whole body or partial body cryotherapy) and or face masks or body cuffs with controlled temperature, sometimes called hilotherm.
While cryotherapy is widely used, there appears to be little evidence as to its efficacy that has been replicated or shown in large controlled studies. Also its long term side effects have not been studied. Commonly, reports regarding cryotherapy suggest further research is needed.
Cryosurgery is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. The application of ultra-cold liquid causes damage to the treated tissue due to intracellular ice formation. The degree of damage depends upon the minimum temperature achieved and the rate of cooling. Cryosurgery is used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, most especially skin conditions like warts, moles, skin tags and solar keratoses. Liquid nitrogen is usually used to freeze the tissues at the cellular level. The procedure is used often as it is relatively easy and quick, can be done in the doctors surgery, and is deemed quite low risk. If a cancerous lesion is suspected then excision rather than cryosurgery may be deemed more appropriate.
Ice pack therapy
Ice pack therapy is a treatment of cold temperatures to an injured area of the body. Though the therapy is extensively used, and it is agreed that it alleviates symptoms, testing has produced conflicting results about its efficacy.
An ice pack is placed over an injured area and is intended to absorb heat of a closed traumatic or edematous injury by using conduction to transfer thermal energy. The physiologic effects of cold application include immediate vasoconstriction with reflexive vasodilation, decreased local metabolism and enzymatic activity, and decreased oxygen demand. Cold decreases muscle spindle fiber activity and slows nerve conduction velocity, therefore it is often used to decrease spasticity and muscle guarding. It is commonly used to alleviate the pain of minor injuries, as well as decrease muscle soreness. The use of ice packs in treatment decreases the blood flow most rapidly at the beginning of the cooling period, this occurs as a result of vasoconstriction, the initial reflex sympathetic activity.
Ice is not commonly used prior to rehabilitation or performance because of its known adverse effects to performance such as decreased myotatic reflex and force production, as well as a decrease in balance immediately following ice pack therapy for 20 minutes. However, if ice pack therapy is applied for less than 10 minutes, performance can occur without detrimental effects. If the ice pack is removed at this time, athletes are sent back to training or competition directly with no decrease in performance.
Cold spray anesthetics
In addition to their use in cryosurgery, several types of cold aerosol sprays are used for short-term pain relief. Ordinary spray cans containing tetrafluoroethane, dimethyl ether, or similar substances, are used to numb the skin prior to or possibly in place of local anesthetic injections, and prior to other needles, small incisions, sutures, and so on. Other products containing chloroethane are used to ease sports injuries, similar to ice pack therapy.
Whole body cryotherapy
Cryo chamber at −110 °C
Cryotherapy patients during preparation of treatment of c. 3 minutes
A cryosauna used in partial body cryotherapy
Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is an alternative to cold water immersion or ice packs. While further studies to determine the efficacy of the treatment are recommended a review of the available data does not show that this treatment has a greater impact than simple ice pack therapy or ice bath.
This treatment involves exposing individuals to extremely cold dry air (below −100 °C) for two to four minutes. To achieve the subzero temperatures required for WBC, two methods are typically used: liquid nitrogen and refrigerated cold air. During these exposures, individuals wear minimal clothing, which usually consists of shorts for males, and shorts and a crop top for females. Gloves, a woollen headband covering the ears, and a nose and mouth mask, in addition to dry shoes and socks, are commonly worn to reduce the risk of cold-related injury. The first WBC chamber was built in Japan in the late 1970s, but WBC was not introduced to Europe until the 1980s, and has only been used in the US and Australia in the past decade.
Whole body cryotherapy was initially intended for use in a clinical setting to treat patients with conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. WBC is provided in over 50 European hospitals and medical clinics and it has now been used in many spas, and athletic training facilities as well. Elite athletes have reported using the treatment to alleviate delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after exercise and recreational athletes have started to emulate elite athletes in using these treatments after exercise. Reductions in muscle and skin tissue temperature after WBC exposure may stimulate cutaneous receptors and excite the sympathetic adrenergic fibres, causing constriction of local arterioles and venules. There has been a study that suggests that WBC stimulates the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation, after exposure but it does not appear to have been duplicated.
Systematic reviews of whole body cryotherapy have repeatedly called for research studies to implement active surveillance of adverse events, which are suspected of being underreported. If the cold temperatures are produced by evaporating liquid nitrogen, there is the risk of inert gas asphyxiation as well as frostbite.
Partial body cryotherapy
Partial Body Cryotherapy (PBC) devices or ‘cryosaunas’ are cylindrical chambers, typically having an aperture at the top, with the patient’s head remaining outside and not subjected to the cold stimulus. These devices are commonly used throughout United States and are erroneously referred to as offering “Whole Body Cryotherapy”. A further key difference between PBC and WBC is the usage of injection of evaporated liquid nitrogen into the PBC chamber with the potential adverse effects as listed below.
If the cold temperatures are produced by evaporating liquid nitrogen, there is the risk of inert gas asphyxiation as well as frostbite.
- Cold shock response
- Ice bath
- ^ Cryotherapy at eMedicine
- ^ a b Novella, Steven (2015-10-28). “Whole Body Cryotherapy”. Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- ^ “Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment”. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- ^ “The Use of Ice Treatment of Acute Soft-Tissue Injury”. coldone.com. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- ^ Andrews, Mark D. (2004-05-15). “Cryosurgery for Common Skin Conditions”. American Family Physician. (10). ISSN 0002-838X.
- ^ “Information about Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers”. Skcin – The Karen Clifford Skin Cancer Charity. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- ^ Bleakley, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne; MacAuley, Domhnall (2004). “The Use of Ice in the Treatment of Acute Soft-Tissue Injury. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. Volume 32: Pages 251–61.
- ^ Mac Auley, D. C. (July 2001). “Ice therapy: how good is the evidence?”. International Journal of Sports Medicine. (5): 379–84. ISSN 0172-4622. PMID 11510876.
- ^ Thorsson, O. (2001-03-28). “”. Lakartidningen. (13): 1512–13. ISSN 0023-7205. PMID 11330146.
- ^ Article Source: The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Hohenauer E, Taeymans J, Baeyens JP, Clarys P, Clijsen R (2015) The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE 10(9): e0139028.
- ^ Swenson, C; Sward, L; Karlsson, J (1996). “Cryotherapy in Sports Medicine”. Scandinavain Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. (4): 193–200. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.1996.tb00090.x. PMID 8896090.
- ^ Cross, K.M.; Wilson, R.W.; Perrin, D.H. (1996). “Functional Performance Following an Ice Immersion to the Lower Extremity”. Journal of Athletic Training. (2): 113–16. PMC 1318440 . PMID 16558383.
- ^ Saam, F.; Seidinger, B; Tibesku, C. O. (2008). “The Influence of Cryotherapy of the Ankle on Static Balance”. Sportverletz Sportschaden. (1): 45–51. doi:10.1055/s-2007-963601. PMID 18350484.
- ^ a b c d Costello, Joseph T.; Baker, Philip Ra; Minett, Geoffrey M.; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B.; Bleakley, Chris (18 September 2015). “Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. : CD010789. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010789.pub2. PMID 26383887.
- ^ “Cryotherapy: What Works and What Doesn’t”. Skeptoid. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- ^ Metzger, D.; Zwingmann, C.; Protz, W.; Jäckel, W. H. (1 April 2000). “”. Die Rehabilitation. (2): 93–100. doi:10.1055/s-2000-14442. ISSN 0034-3536. PMID 10832164.
- ^ Hirvonen, H. E.; Mikkelsson, M. K.; Kautiainen, H.; Pohjolainen, T. H.; Leirisalo-Repo, M. (1 June 2006). “Effectiveness of different cryotherapies on pain and disease activity in active rheumatoid arthritis. A randomised single blinded controlled trial”. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. (3): 295–301. ISSN 0392-856X. PMID 16870097.
- ^ Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Mounier, Rémi; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe (1 January 2011). “Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise”. PLOS ONE. (7): e22748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022748. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3145670 . PMID 21829501.
- ^ Roberts, Michelle (29 September 2015). “Should Welsh rugby team ditch the big freeze?”. BBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- ^ Costello, J. T.; Donnelly, A. E.; Karki, A.; Selfe, J. (1 January 2014). “Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature”. International Journal of Sports Medicine. (1): 35–40. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1343410. ISSN 1439-3964. PMID 23780900.
- ^ Costello, Joseph Thomas; Culligan, Kevin; Selfe, James; Donnelly, Alan Edward (6 November 2012). “Muscle, Skin and Core Temperature after −110°C Cold Air and 8°C Water Treatment”. PLOS ONE. (11): e48190. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048190. PMC 3491015 . PMID 23139763.
- ^ Savic, Miroslav; Fonda, Borut; Sarabon, Nejc (1 May 2013). “Actual temperature during and thermal response after whole-body cryotherapy in cryo-cabin”. Journal of Thermal Biology. (4): 186–91. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2013.02.004.
- ^ Hausswirth, Christophe; Schaal, Karine; Le Meur, Yann; Bieuzen, François; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Louis, Julien (1 January 2013). “Parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamine responses following a single partial-body cryostimulation and a whole-body cryostimulation”. PLOS ONE. (8): e72658. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072658. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3749989 . PMID 23991134.
- ^ Bleakley, Chris; Bieuzen, Francois; Davison, Gareth; Costello, Joseph (March 2014). “Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives”. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine: 25. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S41655.
- ^ a b Staff editors (23 March 2017). “The spread of cryotherapy”. The Economist. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- ^ “Comment on cryotherapy safety”. CryoAction. 28 October 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Cryotherapy at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Rugby World Cup 2011: How cryotherapy chamber allowed Wales to come in from the cold
- Cryotherapy Helped Leicester City Win The Premier League Championship
Another record Avicenna, Galen and Hippocrates, told the descendants of the miraculous power of the cold quench the pain, reduce swelling and bruising, to prolong youth.Today, the effectiveness of the treatment of low temperatures officially confirmed by science: it is thanks to cold our immune “shield” is tempered and without interruption.What is cryotherapy, how does it work, what are the indications and contraindications to whether there is a process – it will tell its readers MirSovetov.
Cryotherapy – a new word in medicine
This procedure heals the whole organism and its separate systems.During a session on human influence short-term ultra-low temperature (about -1600 ° C) – a real shock!However, this therapy is not only completely safe, but also has an undeniable positive effect on metabolism, blood vessels and blood circulation, muscle tone and nervous system.
The term “cryotherapy” is meant not only specific treatment using liquid nitrogen, but also ordinary sessions hypothermic (ice packs
and practice winter swimming).
The amazing effectiveness of cryotherapy are features of our physiology and nothing more.The fact that the skin covering a plurality of heat and cold, and the number of receptors in the past 10 times greater than the number of heat.Incredibly low temperatures during the sessions of cryotherapy due to the cold receptors are not the body perceives as stress, as well as a strong positive “shake.”Reaction to cold exposure procedure is the mobilization of domestic reserves.Chill well relieves pain, reduces inflammation and swelling, fights spasms, improves metabolic processes, normalizes the circulatory and lymphatic system, improves muscle tone.
Methods of exposure to cold is common, local and private, as well as presented in the form of Cryo.
Cryotherapy gained the greatest popularity.This cold chamber (cryosauna) with liquid nitrogen.The temperature can be lowered to the level of -1500 ° C.But this is not a frightening figure for the body is no danger – the cold affects only the upper layers of the skin without penetrating inside.Duration of the treatment does not exceed 3 minutes.To avoid frostbitten hands and feet, they are hidden under the warm socks and mittens.
purpose of cryotherapy – cool the skin down to 0 ° C.Such a big jump in temperature enhances the flow of large volumes of blood to all the organs of the body, activates the immune system.To maintain the health experts recommend a preventive treatment course of 10-15 sessions.
Local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen affects certain areas of the face and body and works in two ways:
- stimulates the process of the withering away of tissue (papillomas, moles, warts, tumors).
- Makes vessels narrowed sharply to abundant blood supply to the desired location on the skin, which in turn accelerates the regenerative processes of cells, healing of injuries.
cryomassage – way to the local influence of low temperatures.Treatment is carried out using a special applicator, which is a wooden stick with cotton turundas at the end.This swab dipped in liquid nitrogen, is typically somewhat larger size portion which is subjected to freezing.Liquid nitrogen – colorless transparent substance is odorless, does not contain toxins and does not ignite.Specialist applicator makes manipulation without touching the surface of the skin.
effect of nitrogen on small arteries and blood vessels react to the sharp and strong spasm and then dilate, greatly increasing in volume and abundantly filled with blood.Hyperemia maintained for 2.5-3 hours, during which there is an active tissue oxygenation is accelerated to normal peripheral blood supply and venous outflow.Cryomassage demand mainly for cosmetic purposes: the procedure is perfectly affects the appearance of the face and body.
Private cryotherapy – cold treatment at home with ice or cold water.Hardening and Personal Care using ice packs, wraps, cold baths and soul should be done sparingly, so as not to achieve the opposite effect – a cold or inflammation.
What diseases cures cryotherapy
Cold Treatment true for treatment of the following diseases:
- inflammatory skin lesions allergic (eczema).
- dark spots after squeezing pimples.
- dermatitis of various etiologies.
- all stages of cellulite.
- Alopecia, hair loss and severe weakening of the hair.
- minor skin blemishes.
- chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis.
In cosmetology cryotherapy practice to improve the face, neck and décolleté.
Contraindications to the treatment of cold
- open wounds.
- Chronic diseases in the acute stage.
- Cardiovascular disease.
- mental disorders.
- ARI and ARI.
- allergy to cold.
- Pregnancy, lactation.
Given the rather large list of conditions for which to apply cryotherapy is dangerous to health, before any exposure to cold treatments obligatory consultation with a doctor.
cold tablets and instead of a scalpel
Cryotherapy successfully fights with some illness, as a great opportunity to replace surgery more gentle treatments.
- Chronic tonsillitis. treat inflammation of the tonsils cold – the only alternative to surgery.Apply cryodestruction tonsils.
- Cold Treatment pharyngitis begins with a local anesthetic throat.Cryotherapy is performed in the lateral ridges on the rear part of the pharynx.The procedure does not bring pain to the patient, leaving only a slight discomfort in the first few hours after the session.In some cases, one treatment ends the procedure is repeated two times or three times every 6-7 weeks.
- to procedures cryotherapy nose treated at catarrhal and allergic rhinitis, chronic difficulty breathing through the nose.
- With adenoids come follows: special krionasadku introduced into the nose, and in a few seconds “treated” low temperature lymphoid tissue.To reduce the adenoids and restore full nasal breathing cryoprocedure enough 2-3 at intervals of several weeks.
Cryotherapy has been used for many years to treat various diseases. This method is successfully used not only in medicine, but also in cosmetology. Hippocrates also told his students about the miraculous power of the cold, how he relieves swelling, reduces pain and prolongs youth. Today it is proved by many doctors that cryotherapy positively affects our body and is not harmful to it. In this article, we will tell you in more detail about the treatment with cryotherapy.
What is cryotherapy
Cryotherapy allows you to improve the health of the whole organism, as well as parts of it. During this procedure, people are exposed to low temperatures – up to -1600 degrees. But despite such a low temperature, the procedure is absolutely safe for humans and it positively affects metabolism, muscle tone, nervous system, blood circulation and blood vessels.
Cryotherapy can be performed using liquid nitrogen or through hypothermic sessions( walrus and ice compresses).There is cryotherapy on ou
r body as follows. Our entire skin is covered with a multitude of receptors that react to temperature. Receptors that react to cold are 10 times larger than those that respond to heat. Thanks to this, during the procedure our body reacts to it not as a stress, but as a powerful positive “shake”.After the procedure, internal organs and body reserves are mobilized. Cold perfectly reduces pain, relieves puffiness, fights with spasms, normalizes the functioning of the circulatory system, relieves inflammation, improves metabolic processes and increases muscle tone.
Types of cryotherapy
The method of exposure to cold is divided into general, local and local. It can also be presented in the form of massages.
General cryotherapy is the most popular. A large cryocamera is used for the procedure, which is filled with liquid nitrogen. The temperature in such a cryosauna can drop to -1500 degrees. But such a low temperature is absolutely not dangerous for our body. Cold in such a chamber affects only the upper layers of the skin, but does not penetrate inside. The duration of the procedure for total cryotherapy does not exceed three minutes. In order not to get frostbite of legs and hands, they are hidden under warm socks and mittens.
With a general cryotherapy, the skin is cooled to 0 degrees. With such a large temperature jump, the flow of large volumes of blood to all internal organs increases, thereby activating the immune system. To maintain the body in a tone, it is recommended to undergo a preventive course of procedures, which consists of 10-15 sessions.
Local cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen affects certain areas of the body and face. This kind of cryotherapy works in two ways. First, it stimulates the process of tissue death. This is necessary when removing warts, papillomas, moles, tumors. Secondly, this causes the vessels to contract sharply for abundant blood flow to the necessary site. This accelerates the regenerative processes and promotes the speedy healing of tissues.
Cryomassage is a method of local influence of low temperatures. Treatment in this way is done using a special applicator, which is a wooden stick with a cotton turunda on the end. This cotton swab is wetted in liquid nitrogen and then several times the doctor spends it at a distance from the skin. Liquid nitrogen is clear, odorless, toxic and does not ignite.
On the action of nitrogen, the vessels and small arteries react with a strong and sharp spasm, after which they greatly expand and increase in volume. Because of this, they are filled with blood. Hyperemia lasts for two to three hours, at this time there is an active oxygen saturation of tissues, the outflow of venous blood is normalized, peripheral blood supply is accelerated. Cryo massages are carried out for cosmetic purposes, to have a positive effect on the skin of the body and face.
Private cryotherapy is an ice treatment at home. For sure, each of us faced with such situations, when with a bruise or bruise we applied ice from the freezer to the damaged place. Also, girls often make hardening with the use of cold water, wrapping, ice packs for the face and the like. Such procedures are useful, but it is necessary to conduct them very carefully, so as not to cause inflammation or colds.
What diseases are treated with cryotherapy
Cryotherapy is widely used in medicine. With its help, various diseases are treated:
- inflammatory skin damage of an allergic nature;
- dermatitis and eczema;
- all stages of cellulite;
- dark spots after acne;
- weakening or hair loss, as well as allopecia;
- throat diseases: chronic rhinitis, tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
However, cryotherapy has some contraindications. It can not be used with open wounds on the body, during an exacerbation of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases, with ARVI and ARI, with thrombosis, with allergy to cold, and also during pregnancy and lactation.
As you can see, the list of contraindications is rather big. Therefore, before applying cryotherapy, consult your doctor. Sometimes doctors prescribe treatment with cryotherapy.
Cryotherapy instead of a scalpel and tablets
Cryotherapy can replace surgical intervention in certain diseases. It is more sparing and has many advantages. Most often cryotherapy is used:
With chronic tonsillitis
If the disease gives a lot of inconvenience to the patient, then the doctor can decide on the operation. After all, this disease is chronic and very weakens the immune system, which is why a person often gets sick. Thanks to modern methods of treatment, such as cryotherapy, the operation can be abandoned, replacing it with cold treatment.
Before cryodestruction, the patient is anesthetized with pharyngeal mucosa, then the applicators are alternately applied to the amygdala. The effect of cold on the tonsils lasts about two minutes. After such a procedure, the patient for some time will be concerned about sore throat, puffiness and a slight temperature. Frozen tissues die on the 8th or 9th day. A new mucous membrane appears on the place of the dead tissue.
Local throat anesthesia is done. Cryotherapy is carried out in the area of the lateral ridges, which are located on the back of the pharynx. The procedure is painless and leaves only small unpleasant sensations that go through a couple of hours. In some cases, one procedure suffices, in some the procedure is repeated two to three times or every six weeks.
After the procedure, the side rollers decrease and the pellets on the back of the pharynx shrink.
Nasal cavity is anesthetized, then alternately in the nasal passages put the rollers for one or two minutes. In the procedure there are no painful sensations. Four days after the procedure, the patient has difficulty breathing through the nose and feels discomfort in the nasal cavity. But after a week the mucosa comes to normal and the breathing becomes smooth.
A special CRYNOAD is introduced into the nose and for a few seconds the lymphoid tissue is treated with liquid nitrogen. To reduce adenoids and restore full nasal breathing, two or three procedures are sufficient with a break in a month and a half.
Cryotherapy: Literally, “cold therapy.” Cryotherapy, sometimes referred to as cryosurgery, is a procedure used to destroy tissue of both benign and malignant lesions by the freezing and re-thawing process. Liquid nitrogen is the most commonly used freezing source for cryotherapy. Examples of the uses of cryotherapy in medicine are the treatment (removal) of various types of skin lesions , the treatment of dysplastic (precancerous) tissue of the uterine cervix, and the treatment of some prostate cancers.
Another use of the term cryotherapy refers to the use of ice or cold packs applied to a part of the body after an injury to reduce inflammation.